LONGMAN -Grammar of Spoken and Written English


Every time we write or speak, we are faced with a large array of choices: not only choices of what to say but of how to say it. The vocabulary and grammar that we use to communicate are influenced by a number of factors, such as the reason for the communication, the setting, the people we are addressing, and whether we are speaking or writing. Taken together, these choices give rise to systematic patterns of choice in the use of English grammar. Traditionally, such patterns have not been included as part of grammar. Most grammars have focused on structure, describing the form and (sometimes) meaning of grammatical constructions out of context. They have not described how forms and meanings are actually used in spoken and written discourse. But for someone learning about the English language for the purposes of communication, it is the real use of the language that is important. It is not enough to study just the grammatical forms, structures, and classes. These tell us what choices are available in the grammar, but we also need to understand how these choices are used to create discourse in different situations. The year 1999 saw the publication of a large-scale grammar of English with the aim of meeting the above needs: the Longman Grammar o Spoken and f Written English (LGSWE). This was the outcome of an international research project which lasted seven years. Now, we have written a revised, simplified, and shortened version of LGSWE for use by advanced students and their teachers





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One Response to this post

  1. Stuart_Law on 3 septembrie 2012, 08:33

    Thank you.

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